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Angraecum scottianum
ENCYCLOPÆDIA
ANGRAECORUM
Genus Angraecum
Angraecum scottianum
Angraecum scottianum - Photo © Peter M.C. Werner
Classification

Kingdom

Plantae

Division

Magnoliophyta

Class

Liliopsida

Order

Asparagales

Family

Orchidaceae

Subfamily

Epidendroideae

Tribe

Vandaeae Lindley

Subtribe

Angraecinae Summerhayes

Alliance

Angraecum

Genus

Angraecum

Genus Abreviation

Angcm

Synonyms

Aeranthus Rchb.f 1826
Aerobion Spreng. 1826
Angorkis Thou. 1809
Angorchis Spreng. 1822
Barombia Schltr. 1914
Epidorchis Thou. 1822
Macroplectrum Pfitzer 1889
Monixus Finet 1907
Pectinaria Cordem. 1819.

Common Name

Angraecum

Authority

Bory, 1804

Species

contains 221 species, some of the most magnificent of all orchids

Etymology

angrek or angurek: a Malay word meaning Orchid

Distribution

Mostrly tropical Africa

They belong to the subtribe Angraecinae and as such, do not possess pseudobulbs but have an ever growing monopodial stem or stems. They are in the Alliance Angraecum along with the Genera: Aeranthes, Angraecum, Jumellea.

Many species that in the past were considered to belong to the genus Angraecum have now been re-classified. A complete list of all present and past species names with their current classification can be found in the Binomial and Synonyms table.

Currently there are 221 accepted Angraecum species. New species are still being discovered in the rain forests of Madagascar.

They are quite varied vegetatively and florally and are adapted to dry tropical woodland habitat and have quite fleshy leaves as a consequence. Most are epiphytes, but a few are lithophytes. Tropical Africa and Madagascar contain the majority of the genus with outlying species in southeast Asia. But these orchids can also be found on the Comoros, the Seychelles, and the Mascarenes. They occur between sea level and 2,000 m in humid regions. The long-lasting flowers are racemose and grow from the leaf axils. They are mostly white, but a few are yellow, green or ochre. They all have a long spur at the back of the labellum (lip). In the case of Angraecum sesquipedale, a species from Madagascar, on observing the 30cm spur in the lip, Charles Darwin theorised that, since the nectar was at the bottom of the spur, a pollinator must exist with a tongue at least that long. Otherwise the orchid could never be pollinated. At the time, he was not believed. However, long after Darwin's death, the predicted pollinator was discovered, a hawk moth now named Xanthopan morganii praedicta (praedicta meaning predicted). It had an appropriately long proboscis. The specific name 'sesquipedale' means 'one foot and a half', referring to the length of the spur. This is a perfect example of mutual dependence of an orchid and a specific pollinator.

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Species

Angraecum acutipetalum

Madagascar

Angraecum affine

WC. Trop. Africa to Uganda

Angraecum alleizettei

C. Madagascar

Angraecum aloifolium

NW. Madagascar

Angraecum ambrense

N. Madagascar

Angraecum amplexicaule

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum ampullaceum

Madagascar

Angraecum andasibeense

N.& C. Madagascar

Angraecum andringitranum

SE. Madagascar

Angraecum angustipetalum

W. & WC. Trop. Africa to Malawi

Angraecum angustum

 

Angraecum ankeranense

C. Madagascar

Angraecum aporoides

Nigeria to WC. Trop.Africa

Angraecum appendiculoides

C. Madagascar

Angraecum astroarche

São Tomé

Angraecum aviceps

N. Madagascar

Angraecum bancoense

Ivory Coast, Cameroon

Angraecum baronii

N. & C. Madagascar

Angraecum bemarivoense

N.Madagascar

Angraecum bicallosum

N. Madagascar

Angraecum birrimense

W. & WC. Trop. Africa

Angraecum borbonicum

Mauritius, Reunion

Angraecum brachyrhopalon

N. Madagascar

Angraecum bracteosum

Reunion

Angraecum breve

N. Madagascar

Angraecum brevicornu

NE. Tanzania

Angraecum cadetii

Mauritius, Reunion

Angraecum calceolus

Mozambique to W. Indian Ocean

Angraecum caricifolium

C. Madagascar

Angraecum caulescens

Mauritius, Reunion, Madagascar

Angraecum chaetopodum

N. Madagascar

Angraecum chamaeanthus

Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe

Angraecum chermezoni

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum chimanimaniense

Zimbabwe

Angraecum chloranthum

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum cilaosianum

Reunion

Angraecum claessensii

W. Trop. Africa to Congo

Angraecum clareae

Madagascar

Angraecum clavigerum

Madagascar

Angraecum compactum

Madagascar

Angraecum compressicaule

C. Madagascar

Angraecum conchiferum

Kenya to S. Africa

Angraecum cordemoyi

Reunion

Angraecum coriaceum

Madagascar

Angraecum cornigerum

Reunion

Angraecum cornucopiae

Madagascar

Angraecum corynoceras

N. Madagascar

Angraecum costatum

Reunion, Mauritius

Angraecum coutrixii

SE. Madagascar

Angraecum crassifolium

Reunion

Angraecum crassum

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum cribbianum

Gabon

Angraecum cucullatum

Reunion, Mauritius

Angraecum cultriforme

Kenya to NE. KwaZulu-Natal

Angraecum curnowianum

NW Madagascar

Angraecum curvicalcar

N.Madagascar

Angraecum curvicaule

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum curvipes

Cameroon

Angraecum danguyanum

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum dasycarpum

E. Madagascar

Angraecum dauphinense

SW. Madagascar

Angraecum decaryanum

SW. Madagascar

Angraecum decipiens

Kenya to N. Tanzania

Angraecum dendrobiopsis

N. Madagascar

Angraecum didieri

Madagascar

Angraecum distichum

W. Trop. Africa to Angola and Uganda

Angraecum divaricatum

Mauritius, Reunion

Angraecum dives

Socotra, SW. Somalia to Tanzania

Angraecum dollii

C. Madagascar

Angraecum doratophyllum

São Tomé, Príncipe

Angraecum drouhardii

N. Madagascar

Angraecum dryadum

Madagascar

Angraecum eburneum

SE. Kenya to E. Tanzania (incl. Pemba, Zanzibar), W. Indian Ocean

  Angraecum eburneum
  subsp. eburneum

W. Indian Ocean

Lithophytic

  Angraecum eburneum
  subsp. giryamae

SE. Kenya to E. Tanzania (incl. Pemba, Zanzibar

Lithophytic

  Angraecum eburneum
  var. longicalcar

Madagascar

Lithophytic

  Angraecum eburneum
  ssp. superbum

Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar

Lithophytic

Angraecum eburneum
subsp. xerophilum

SW Madagascar

Lithophytic

Angraecum egertonii

S. Nigeria to Gabon

Angraecum eichlerianum

Nigeria to Angola

  Angraecum eichlerianum
  var. curvicalcaratum

Cameroon

Epiphytic

  Angraecum eichlerianum
  var. eichlerianum

Nigeria to Angola

Epiphytic

Angraecum elephantinum

C. Madagascar

Angraecum elliotii

Madagascar

Angraecum equitans

N. Madagascar

Angraecum erectum

E. Trop.Africa to Zambia

Angraecum evrardianum

Burundi

Angraecum expansum

Reunion

  Angraecum expansum
  subsp. expansum

Réunion

Epiphytic

  Angraecum expansum
  subsp. inflatum

Réunion

Epiphytic

Angraecum falcifolium

SE. Madagascar

Angraecum ferkoanum

Madagascar

Angraecum filicornu

Mauritius, Reunion, Madagascar

Angraecum firthii

Cameroon, Uganda, Kenya

Angraecum flavidum

N. Madagascar

Angraecum floribundum

C. Madagascar

Angraecum florulentum

Comoros

Angraecum gabonense

WC. Trop. Africa

Angraecum geniculatum

W. Zambia

Angraecum germinyanum

Mauritius, Reunion, Comoros, Madagascar

Angraecum guillauminii

Madagascar

Angraecum hermannii

Reunion

Angraecum humberti

SW. Madagascar

Angraecum humblotianum

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum humile

Rwanda to Zimbabwe

Angraecum huntleyoides

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum imerinense

C. Madagascar

Angraecum implicatum

Reunion, Madagascar

Angraecum inapertum

Mauritius, Reunion, Madagascar

Angraecum infundibulare

Nigeria to E. Trop. Africa

Angraecum keniae

Kenya

Angraecum kraenzlinianum

N. & NE. Madagascar

Angraecum laggiarae

Madagascar

Angraecum lecomtei

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum leonis

Comoros, Madagascar

Angraecum letouzeyi

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum liliodorum

Reunion

Angraecum linearifolium

N. Madagascar

Angraecum lisowskianum

Nigeria to Equatorial Guinea

Angraecum litorale

Madagascar

Angraecum longicaule

Madagascar

Angraecum longinode

Reunion

Angraecum macilentum

Reunion

Angraecum Madagascariense

N. Madagascar

Angraecum magdalenae

Madagascar

Angraecum magdalenae
var. latiilabellum

N. Madagascar

Epiphytic

  Angraecum magdalenae
  var. magdalenae

C. Madagascar

Epiphytic

Angraecum mahavavense

N. Madagascar

Angraecum mauritianum

Reunion, Mauritius, E.Madagascar

Angraecum meirax

Comoros, Madagascar

Angraecum melanostictum

Madagascar

Angraecum metallicum

Madagascar

Angraecum microcharis

N. Madagascar

Angraecum minus

Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Angraecum minutissimum

Ivory Coast

Angraecum minutum

Reunion

Angraecum mirabile

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum moandense

W. Trop. Africa to Uganda

Angraecum modicum

Liberia

Angraecum mofakoko

Congo

Angraecum moratii

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum multiflorum

W. Indian Ocean

Angraecum multinominatum

W. Trop. Africa to Gabon

Angraecum muscicolum

C. Madagascar

Angraecum musculiferum

N. Madagascar

Angraecum myrianthum

SW. Madagascar

Angraecum nanum

Reunion, Mauritius

Angraecum nasutum

N. Madagascar

Angraecum nzoanum

Guinea

Angraecum oberonia

Reunion, Mauritius

Angraecum obesum

C. Madagascar

Angraecum oblongifolium

SE. Madagascar

Angraecum obversifolium

Reunion, Mauritius

Angraecum ochraceum

SE. Madagascar

Angraecum onivense

C. Madagascar

Angraecum palmicolum

C. Madagascar

Angraecum palmiforme

Reunion, Mauritius

Angraecum panicifolium

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum parvulum

Reunion, Mauritius

Angraecum pauciramosum

Madagascar

Angraecum pectinatum

Reunion, Mauritius, Comoros, Madagascar

Angraecum penzigianum

SE. Madagascar

Angraecum pergracile

N. Madagascar

Angraecum perhumile

C. Madagascar

Angraecum perparvulum

Madagascar

Angraecum petterssonianum

W. Rwanda

Angraecum peyrotii

Madagascar

Angraecum pingue

Reunion, Mauritius

Angraecum pinifolium

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum platycornum

Madagascar

Angraecum podochiloides

W. & WC. Trop. Africa

Angraecum popowii

Madagascar

Angraecum potamophilum

NW. Madagascar

Angraecum praestans

Madagascar

Angraecum protensum

SE. Madagascar

Angraecum pseudodidieri

N. Madagascar

Angraecum pseuofilicornu

N. Madagascar

Angraecum pseudopetiolatum

Reunion

Angraecum pterophyllum

C. Madagascar

Angraecum pumilio

N. Madagascar

Angraecum pungens

Nigeria to WC. Trop. Africa

Angraecum pusillum

E. Zimbabwe to S. Africa

Angraecum pygmaeum

 

Angraecum pyriforme

W. Trop. Africa

Angraecum ramosum

Reunion, Mauritius

Angraecum ramulicolum

C. Madagascar

Angraecum reygaertii

Cameroon to Uganda

Angraecum rhizanthium

N. Madagascar

Angraecum rhizomaniacum

N. Madagascar

Angraecum rhynchoglossum

C. Madagascar

Angraecum rigidifolium

C. Madagascar

Angraecum rostratum

SE. Madagascar

Angraecum rubellum

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum rutenbergianum

Madagascar

Angraecum sacciferum

São Tomé to Kenya and S. Africa

Angraecum sacculatum

Madagascar

Angraecum salazianum

Reunion

Angraecum sambiranoense

N. & C. Madagascar

Angraecum sanfordii

Cameroon

Angraecum scalariforme

N. Madagascar, Comoros

Angraecum scottianum

Comoros

Angraecum sedifolium

C. Madagascar

Angraecum serpens

Madagascar

Angraecum sesquipedale

E. & S. Madagascar

Angraecum sesquipedale
var. angustifolium

SW. Madagascar

Epiphytic

  Angraecum sesquipedale
  var. sesquipedale

E. & S. Madagascar

Epiphytic

Angraecum sesquisectangulum

Madagascar

Angraecum setipes

C. Madagascar

Angraecum sinuatiflorum

SE. Madagascar

Angraecum sororium

Madagascar

Angraecum spectabile

NW. Tanzania

Angraecum spicatum

Reunion

Angraecum stella-africae

Malawi to Transvaal

Angraecum sterrophyllum

C. Madagascar

Angraecum stolzii

Tanzania to Zambia

Angraecum striatum

Reunion

Angraecum subulatum

W. & WC. Trop. Africa

Angraecum tamarindicolum

 

Angraecum tenellum

Reunion, Madagascar

Angraecum tenuifolium

Reunion

Angraecum tenuipes

N. Madagascar

Angraecum tenuispica

Madagascar

Angraecum teres

Tanzania

Angraecum teretifolium

Madagascar

Angraecum triangulifolium

Madagascar

Angraecum trichoplectron

Madagascar

Angraecum triquetrum

Reunion, Mauritius

Angraecum umbrosum

Malawi

Angraecum undulatum

Reunion, Mauritius

Angraecum urschianum

NE. Madagascar

Angraecum verecundum

C. Madagascar

Angraecum vesiculatum

N. Madagascar

Angraecum vesiculiferum

C. Madagascar

Angraecum viguieri

Madagascar

Angraecum viride

Tanzania

Angraecum viridiflorum

Reunion

Angraecum xylopus

Comoros

Angraecum yuccifolium

Mauritius

Angraecum zaratananae

N. Madagascar

Angraecum zeylanicum

Seychelles (Mahe), Sri Lanka

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For many years, this genus was known only from a few plants owing to difficulties in importing them from the far-away habitats. Today, many species in this genus are grown from seed, which makes them more readily avaiable to growers, who can discover the many species available by reading books. Handsome in or out of bloom, angraecums usually have white to creamy green blooms that are borne one to many on axillary inflorescences. The flowers are often fragrant at night.

Various botanists have revised the genus Angraecum and tried to divide it into sections. In 1973, the American botanist Leslie Garay has proposed to divide the genus Angraecum into 19 sections. His work is still a reference: 7 sections are strictly endemic to Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands. 10 sections are common to Madagascar and Continental Africa. 2 sections are only found in Continental Africa His work is still a reference: 7 sections are strictly endemic to Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands. 10 sections are common to Madagascar and Continental Africa. 2 sections are only found in Continental Africa [Systematics of the Genus Angraecum (Orchidaceae), Kew Bulletin (1973)]

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Pollination is insured by moths that have a trump that is adapted to the length of the flowers' spur. The moths are attracted by the powerful fragrance of the flower and guided by the white color of the labellum that is well visible at night.

Habitat: This is difficult to generalize, as the plants range from dwarf to quite large, and from upright, as in A. sesquipedale and Angraecum compactum, to trailing, as in Angraecum scottianum . Generally, these plants are monopodial, sometimes branching, with fleshy leaves and showy white blooms borne one to many on racemes. The flowers are generally of heavy substance and long lasting.

Culture: The diverse habitats from which these plants originate makes it difficult to prescribe specific cultural advice. Provide strong light, but not direct sun (some, like A soronium, will not bloom without sun). Adequate humidity is a must. Provide the larger plants with an open medium in pots or baskets. Grow the smaller plants in small pots or mount them on pieces of tree fern, cork or wood. An even supply of moisture is important. Larger plants must have either tropical conditions out of doors, or a greenhouse because they can get quite large, up to 36 inches or more. Members of this group include Angraecum eburneum, A. sesquipedale, Ang. scottianum (trailing) and Angraecum magdalenae. Smaller plants can be excellent windowsill or under-lights subjects. Among these are Angraecum leonis (see picture), Ang. compactum and Angraecum didieri .

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Angraecum sesquipedale Thou. 1822

(The Star of Bethlehem Orchid or Christmas Star Orchid or Comet Orchid or Rocket Orchid) is the orchid that gave Charles Darwin some of his ideas about evolution. When he observed the 12-inch-long spur included in the lip of this flower, he postulated that there must be a moth, or a similar insect, with a tongue of the same or greater length. Some decades after Drawin's death, he was proved right with the discovery of the moth Xanthopan morganii praedicta (the name praedicta means predicted).

The ghostly stellar forms of Angraecum orchids release a sweet fragrance onto the night air, attracting moths as their pollinators. There is no landing platform as moths usually prefer to hover in front of a flower. Abundant sweet nectar is hidden in deep narrow tubes around 30 cm long - only accessible to those with very long tongues such as the famous Madagascan 'Sphinx Moth' (Xanthopan morgani praedicta).

 

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Mauritius-Specific

The rarest of the orchids is the epiphytic Angraecum cadetii, which was reduced to only thirteen known individuals but is still quite.common on Reunion

Angraecum mauritianum. Poir.

Erect, stems c.25cm tall; flowers white, rather fleshy.

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References

1 - Fred E. HILLERMAN 1992 - A Culture manual for angraecoid orchid growers

2 - Fred E. HILLERMAN & Arthur W. HOLST 1986 - An introduction to the cultivated angraecoid orchids of Madagascar

3 - Isobyl & Eric LA CROIX 1997 - African orchids in the wild and in cultivation

Isobyl LA CROIX, Eric LA CROIX & T. M. LA CROIX 1991 - Orchids of Malawi

Du Puy, David. - Cribb, Phillip. - Bosser, Jean.- Hermans, Johan & Clare
The Orchids of Madagascar
Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, 1999
ISBN 1 900347 70 9

Aubert Aubert du PETIT-THOUARS - ( Reproduction of the book published in 1822 ) Histoire Particulière des Plantes Orchidées Recueillies sur les Trois Iles Australes d'Afrique

Bechtel, H., P. Cribb, and E. Launert. 1980.
Manual of cultivated orchid species.
MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Hawkes, A. D. (1965)
1987. Encyclopaedia of cultivated orchids.
Faber and Faber, London.

Hillerman, F. E., and A. W. Holst. 1986.
An introduction to the cultivated Angraecoid orchids of Madagascar.
Timber Press, Portland, Ore.

Northen, R. T. 1980.
Miniature orchids.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

Veitch, James, and Sons. [1887-1894] 1963, 1981.
Manual of orchidaceous plants. Vols. I-II.
James Veitch and Sons, Royal Exotic Nursery, Chelsea, London.
Reprint, Vol. I, A. Asher and Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands;
reprint, Vol. II, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India.

Bosser, J. 1987. Contribution à l ' é t u d e des Orchidaceae de Madagascar et des Mascareignes. XXII. Adansonia 3: 249- 254

Strahm, W. and J.M. Bosser. 1996. Mascarene Islands. pp. 107-108 in Hágsater, E. and V. Dumont, (Eds.), Orchids - Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

see also the Bibliography

Links

Charles and Margaret Baker
Le Genre Angraecum Bory by Denise Roucoule (French)

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Where to buy them

UZUMARA ORCHIDS ( Scotland ) : 9 species ( young plants)
WUBBEN ( Netherland ) : 15 species + 1 hybride
KOPF ( Germany ) : 9 species + 1 hybride
KJ ORCHIDS ( Danemark ) : 7 species + 1 hybride
CURRLIN ( Germany ) : 13 species + 2 hybrides
Joël JACQ ( France ) : Around 20 species
ORCHIDEE PASSION ( Belgium ) : 14 species + 3 hybrides
Marcel LECOUFLE ( France ) : 8 species + 1 hybride
HOOSIER COMPANY ( U.S.A. ) : Un certain number of species from the collection of Fred HILLERMAN

See the detailed Links to specialized Nurseries

 

Angraecum didieri
Angraecum didieri - Photo courtesy of Dick McRill
 
Angraecum sesquipedale

Angraecum sesquipedale
from latin sesquipedalis = a foot and a half, referring to the long stem of the flower

 
Angraecum cultriforme
Angraecum cultriforme
Photo courtesy Patrick Denissen www.pnporchids.be
 
Angraecum magdalenae - Queen of the Angraecums
Angraecum magdalenae
 
Angraecum elephantinum
Angraecum elephantinum
 
Angraecum veitchii
Angraecum veitchii
 
Angraecum leonis - Lion's Moustache Orchid
Angraecum leonis is one of the most satisfying orchid houseplants -- it's small-growing, fairly easy on a low- to medium-light windowsill, and is splendidly fragrant. Photograph copyright judywhite.
 
Angraecum germinyanum
Angraecum germinyanum
Strongly fragrant in the evening
 
Angraecum comorense
Angraecum comorense
 
Angraecum cadettii
Angraecum cadetii
 
Angraecum mauritianum
Angraecum mauritianum
 
Angraecum eburneum var. longicalcar
Angraecum eburneum var. longicalcar
 
Angraecum viguieri
Angraecum viguieri
Photo courtesy of Hendrik De Rocker
 
Angraecum distichum
Angraecum distichum
Photo courtesy of Andy's Orchids
 
Angraecum distichum
Angraecum distichum plant
Photo courtesy of Eric Hunt
 
Angraecum calceolus
Angraecum calceolus Thou.
Small epiphytic plants which can form large clumps. The flowers are widely spaced on a long branching inflorescences. Can be almost constantly flowering when well grown.
 
Angraecum compactum
Angraecum compactum
Angraecum compactum
Angraecum compactum
Photos courtesy Milan Vágner
Angraecum compactum Schltr. 1916 is a miniature species found in Madagascar at up to 2000m. The 1-2 6cm flowers are pure white and fragrant at night.
 
Angraecum eburneum subsp. superbum
Angraecum eburneum subsp. superbum
Photo courtesy Marc Philippe
 
Angraecum mahavahense
Angraecum mahavahense H. Perrier. (1938)
Photo courtesy Dominique Karadjoff
Angraecum mahavahense
Angraecum mahavahense H.Perrier. (1938)
Photo courtesy Dominique Karadjoff

Genus Angraecum

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